The Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565, is a piece of organ music attributed to Johann Sebastian Bach. [10], In 1833, BWV 565 was published for the first time, in the third of three bundles of "little known" organ compositions by Bach. In this sense, in Ringk's manuscript, the piece is written down in D Dorian mode. It was that piece, BWV 538, that received the "Dorian" nickname, that qualifier being effectively used to distinguish it from BWV 565. Williams sees stylistic matches with Pachelbel, with the north German organ school, and with the Italian violin school, but sees various unusual features of the composition as well. The last bars are played Molto adagio, and the piece ends with a minor plagal cadence. [68], Bach's Toccata and Fugue was not performed on the organ exclusively. From then on the work has been simply BWV 565, and the other, the so-called "Dorian", has been BWV 538. Bach's Organ Toccata BWV 565" pp. The edition was conceived and partly prepared by Felix Mendelssohn, who had BWV 565 in his repertoire already by 1830. He used the glockenspiel stop for the Prestissimo triplets in the opening section, and the quintadena stop for the repeated notes in bars 12–15. Such violinistic figures are frequently encountered in Baroque music and that of Bach, both as fugue subjects and as material in non-imitative pieces. [10] Its defining characteristics have been associated with extant compositions by Bach (BWV 531, 549a, 578, 911, 914, 922 and several of the solo violin sonatas and partitas),[10][14][33][34][35] and by others (including Nicolaus Bruhns and Johann Heinrich Buttstett),[10] as well as with untraceable earlier versions for other instruments and/or by other composers. By the mid 1930s, Leonidas Leonardi had published his orchestration, and Alois Melichar's orchestration was recorded in 1939. For BWV 565 that means staying close to the Ringk manuscript. Walter Emery advocated that scepticism was a necessary condition to approaching the history of Bach's organ compositions,[139] and Friedrich Blume saw problems with the traditional historiography of Bach's youth. The attribution of the piece to Bach, however, has been challenged since the 1970s by a number of scholars. Moreover, it is very likely that any person initiated or not the classical music has heard many times in his life, since it is widely adopted in film, television, radio and even in video games. [55] Schweitzer's first recording of the piece was issued in 1935. In the mid-1990s, Fred Mills, then trumpet player for Canadian Brass, created an adaptation for brass quintet that became a worldwide standard for brass ensembles.[160][161]. The second section of the Toccata is a number of loosely connected figurations and flourishes; the pedal switches to the dominant key, A minor. Other commentators ignored the doubts over its authenticity, or considered the attribution issue undecided. [13][14], Spitta also detects a rhythmic figure that appears briefly in the concluding part of the work (bar 137) which, extensively elaborated, reappears in the keyboard Prelude in A minor, BWV 922, a work he supposes to have been composed around 1710. This notion inspired a new theory of adaptation: the reconstruction. According to Miceli (2016), "It is [...] hard to establish what led the composer to quote Bach—perhaps the shared key of D minor led to the idea of the organ, whereas the small church might have at most accommodated nothing more than a run-down harmonium. Such violinistic figures are frequently encountered in Baroque music and that of Bach, both as fugue subjects and as material in non-imitative pieces. Among them was a virtuosic version of the Toccata and Fugue, which tries to replicate the spirit of the original organ sound. Artist: Johann Sebastian Bach Album: Toccata and Fugue Song: Toccata and Fugue in D minor Element of Focus: Texture 1. [18], In the 1950s, a recording of Helmut Walcha playing BWV 565 on organ was released. After a brief pedal flourish, the piece ends with a D minor chord. [66] By the end of the century, hundreds of organists had recorded BWV 565. This resolves into a D major chord:[10], Three short passages follow, each reiterating a short motif and doubled at the octave. In the last quarter of the 20th century, scholars such as Peter Williams and Rolf-Dietrich Claus published their studies on the piece and argued against its authenticity. City Weimar? 7 pp. Mendelssohn’s opinion of the piece, expressed in one of his letters, was that it was “at the same time learned and something for the [common] people.” The first major public performance was also by Mendelssohn, on 6 August 1840 in Leipzig. [35] Williams proposed a violoncello piccolo or a five-stringed cello as alternative possibilities in 2003. First published in 1833 through the efforts of Felix Mendelssohn, the piece quickly became popular, and is now one of the most famous works in the organ repertoire. An earlier virtuoso piano transcription also once much in vogue was by Carl Tausig; pianist Marie Novello chose it for what one source claims to be the Toccata and Fugue’s first recording. Familiarity with the piece was enhanced in the second half of the 19th century by a fairly successful piano version by Carl Tausig, but it was not until the 20th century that its popularity rose above that of other organ compositions by Bach. [60] US record companies seemed faster in putting BWV 565 forward as Bach's best known organ piece. In the meantime, Williams had written a 1981 article on the authenticity of BWV 565, followed by numerous publications by other scholars on the same topic. [150] The violinist Andrew Manze produced his own reconstruction, also in A minor, which he has performed and recorded. [10][101], J. S. Bach as Organist, a 1986 collection of essays edited by George Stauffer and Ernest May, discussed the registration Bach would have used for BWV 565. 103–111 in, Gwinner, Volker (1968). In 1978 Walter Murphy released the album Phantom of the Opera that featured a rearrangement of Toccata and Fugue, entitled Toccata and Funk in D minor. [11] Ringk's copy abounds in Italian tempo markings, fermatas (a characteristic feature of Ringk's copies) and staccato dots, all very unusual features for pre–1740 German music. Dutch progressive/symphonic rock band Ekseption covered the piece for their 1973 album Trinity. The disney animators were given an abstract theme to create the image to the music. Stringing Along", pp. Bach's most famous organ piece, with a bar-graph score.FAQQ: I appreciate the work you're doing; how can I support it?A: Thank you! The only near-contemporary source is an undated copy by Johannes Ringk, a pupil of Johann Peter Kellner. [117][118][119][120][121], The 1950 film Sunset Boulevard used BWV 565 as a joking reference to the horror genre. This piece is a rather straightforward example of what a fugue is, and it also allows me to show you the skills of a professional organist. Bach probably composed the Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565, between 1703-7, but no one is sure of the exact date. The work was first published by Breitkopf & Härtel in late 1833 as part of a collection of Bach’s organ works. Part 1 of 1 - Week 3 Quiz 100.0 Points Question 1 of 10 10.0 Points What are the two forms of keyboard composition explored in J.S. He considers none of them written before Bach's later Weimar years (so closer to 1717 than to 1708). However, in Ringk's manuscript the staves have no ♭ symbol at the key (which would be the usual way to write down a piece in D minor). 4 (2:37, Toccata only – Fugue of that, J. S. Bach – L'Œuvre Pour Orgue – Intégrale en 24 disques, Vol. 0 0. [138], In 1961, Antony Davies remarked that the Toccata was void of counterpoint. It appears on his 1982 album Before I Forget. [22], A violin composition by Bach's eldest son Wilhelm Friedemann, transcribed for the organ by Ringk, was named as another possible source. ", "Some Speculations on the Development of Bach's Organ Style", pp. The piece opens with a toccata section, followed by a fugue that ends in a coda. Diminished chords/ organ/ minor key/ polyphonic texture/ fugue/ ornaments. Jon Lord of Deep Purple fame recorded a composition called “Bach onto this”, which is based on BWV 565. Consequently, the name of the piece was again given in Italian as Toccata con Fuga, and the piece was again written down in D Dorian (i.e. [78] Percy Grainger's 1931 recording on the piano, based on the Tausig and Busoni transcriptions, was written out as a score by Leslie Howard, and then recorded by other artists. [21][100][129][130] They said it was stylistically too close to the galant style of the later 18th century to be an early 18th century composition. We could attempt to do this but at times the very soul of music is sucked out and we lose the imagination and spirit behind it. [113][114][115][116], After 1936, another approach to using BWV 565 in film was under consideration. Later in the 19th century, Franz Liszt adopted the piece into his organ repertoire, and a piano transcription was made by Liszt’s pupil Carl Tausig, which gained substantial fame. [45] In 1912, BWV 565 was published in the second volume, containing works of Bach's "first master period". [104][105][25][106], In 1947, Eugene Ormandy recorded his orchestration of the piece with the Philadelphia Orchestra. Scholars differ as to when it was composed. All later manuscript copies that are known today originate directly or indirectly with Ringk’s. After a brief pedal flourish, the piece ends with a D minor chord. [4][9], Ringk's manuscript does not use a separate stave for the pedal part, which was common in the 18th century (notes to be played on the pedal were indicated by "p." being written at the start of the sequence). Writing in 2005, organist and Bach scholar Hans Fagius commented that while the authorship issue may remain unresolved, the enduring popularity of the work is not difficult to understand, since there is “a fantastic drive and energy to the piece that simply make it irresistible.”. [10][15], A multi-sectional coda follows, marked Recitativo. As its name indicates, Bach’s Toccata and Fugue in D minor is comprised of two sections that are formally distinct. He links it to the northern school, and mentions Tausig, Busoni and Stokowki as influencing its trajectory. "At first you are more or less conscious of the orchestra," Taylor explains, "so our picture opens with a series of impressions of the conductor and the players. Among the numerous examples of scholars referring to the work as one of doubtful attribution are the 1997 Cambridge Companion to Bach, edited by scholar and performer John Butt, as well as recent monographs on Bach’s music by harpsichordist and musicologist David Schulenberg and Richard Douglas Jones. Thickness Vocabulary to use: Description with specific examples: Bach's "Toccata and Fugue in D Minor”? [4][9], A facsimile of Ringk's manuscript was published in 2000. "New light on Bach" in, International Music Score Library Project,, Organ Works BWV 525–771: Recorded Sets of Bach's Complete (or near complete) Organ Works, Bach-Brassin: Piano Transcriptions of Bach's Works by Louis Brassin, Toccata (D moll) für Orgel von Joh. The 1962 film adaptation of The Phantom of the Opera by Hammer Productions featured the piece, and since then, the movie has helped to associate the music with horror movies, Halloween, and the like in popular culture. [146] In 2009, Reinmar Emans wrote that Claus and Wolff had diametrically opposed views on the reliability of Ringk as a copyist, inspired by their respective positions in the authenticity debate, and thinks that sort of speculation unhelpful.[132]. 17–29 in, Emans, Reinmar (2009). J.S. [2][10], The name "Toccata" is most probably a later addition, similar to the title of Toccata, Adagio and Fugue, BWV 564, because in the Baroque era such organ pieces would most commonly be called simply Prelude (Praeludium, etc.) [2] At the time Ringk was a student of Bach's former student[7] Johann Peter Kellner at Gräfenroda, and probably faithfully copied what his teacher put before him. Toccata and Fugue in D minor (composer) Little Fugue in G minor. 3: Toccatas & Fugues en ré mineur bwv 565 – en fa majeur bwv 540 / Préludes & Fugues en do majeur bwv 545 – en mi majeur bwv 533 – Fugue en sol mineur bwv 578, Toccata & Fugue en ré mineur bwv 565 (8:42), Johann Sebastian Bach: Toccata & Fuge / Famous Organ Works, Toccata & Fugue in D minor, BWV 565 (8:56), Toccata & Fugue / Passacaglia / Fugue / Concerto / Fantaisie & Fugue, Toccata & Fugue BVW 565 – Preludes & Fugues BVW 532 & 552 – Fantasia BWV 572 – Pastorale BVW 590, CD 151 – Organ Works: Toccata & Fuga BWV 565/Concerto BWV 594/Praeludium & Fuga BWV 548/"Allein Gott in der Höh' sei Ehr" BWV 711–715/717 (issued. [131] He named another problem − in its first measure the composition contains a C♯, a note organs in Bach's time rarely had, and which Bach almost never used in his organ compositions. Seb. A passage in the fugue of BWV 565 is an exact copy of a phrase in one of Johann Pachelbel’s D minor fantasias, and the first half of the subject is based on this Pachelbel passage as well. The Toccata has been used in a variety of popular media ranging from film, video games, to rock music, and ringtones. Unusually, the answer is in the subdominant key, rather than the traditional dominant. What was available from that branch of the research could be explained in opposite ways. "Bachs d-moll-Tokkata als Credo-Vertonung" in, Kranenburg, Peter van (4 October 2010). [123] Shortened to two minutes in length, BWV 565 was used as the introductory theme for the French animation Once Upon a Time... Man, in 26 episodes between 1978 and 1981. [10] However, Billeter's argument makes authorship by Bach more likely: Bach's harpsichord toccatas (most of them early works) have simplistic elements and quirks similar to BWV 565. [112], BWV 565 was used as film music well before the sound film era, becoming a cliché to illustrate horror and villainy. Its first uses in sound film included the 1931 film Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and the 1934 film The Black Cat. This section segues into the third and final section of the Toccata, which consists almost entirely of a passage doubled at the sixth and comprising reiterations of the same three-note figure, similar to doubled passages in the first section. Bach’s Toccata and Fugue in D Minor was played with an organ. BWV 565 exhibits a typical simplified north German structure with a free opening (toccata), a fugal section (fugue), and a short free closing section. However, starting with the Toccata and Fugue and the Sorcerer's Apprentice, Stokowski, Disney and the music critic Deems Taylor chose other compositions to incorporate into their film project, known as "The Concert Piece." Learn term:bach = toccata and fugue in d minor with free interactive flashcards. Then the music begins to suggest other things to your imagination—oh, just masses of color, or cloud forms, or vague shadows, or geometrical objects floating in space." [16] Immediately after the final subject entry, the fugue resolves to a sustained B♭ major chord. Symphonic transcription published from the library of Leopold Stokowski. Aria from an opera/ ground bass- chromatic descending scale. These included, but were not limited to, the following, all either unique or extremely rare for organ music of the period the toccata is allegedly from: In 1998 the issue was explored in a book-length study by the musicologist Rolf-Dietrich Claus. It reached number 24 on the Billboard charts. Toccata e fuga in re minore BWV 565: elaborazione per flauto solo, Sciarrino: Toccata and Fugue by J S Bach arranged for solo flute, "RM Williams Publishing – Bach/Nagy: Toccata and Fugue in D Minor (in F Minor) for solo horn", "Reviews: Where No Brass Has Gone Before", Johann Sebastian Bach's noch wenig bekannte Orgelcompositionen: auch am Pianoforte von einem oder zwei Spielern ausführbar, Zwei Orgeltoccaten = Two organ toccatas = Deux toccates d'orgue von Joh. [28] It has been seen as united by a single ground-thought,[29] but also as containing "passages which have no connection whatever with the chief idea". In the 1942 cinema release of the film by RKO, the Toccata and Fugue was cut entirely, only to return in a 1946 re-release. [57] In that, and subsequent releases of Walcha's recordings of BWV 565 on Deutsche Grammophon (DG), there is an obvious evolution of the work from "one among many" organ compositions by Bach to a definite signature piece by the composer. 4 in their fourth volume of organ compositions by Bach. In that book he devoted less than a page to BWV 565, and considers it some kind of program music depicting a tempest, including flashes of lightning and rumbling thunder. "[125][126][127][128], A certain uneasiness regarding the authorship of BWV 565 had been around long before the 1980s. In counterpoint, individual melodic lines are pitted against each other. Among other arrangements that have appeared on record are those by Percy Grainger, Ignaz Friedman and Louis Brassin. [30][98], In the early 1920s, Harvey Grace published a series of articles on Bach's organ works. The movement uses long held chords with many suspensions to great effect, an idiom which Bach employed with relative frequency in his mature works. [156] In 1993, Salvatore Sciarrino made an arrangement for solo flute,[157] recorded by Mario Caroli. "Bach's Free Organ Works and the 'stylus Phantasticus'" pp. BWV 538 Title Toccata and fugue in D minor Epithet Dorian Instrument Organ Genre organ works Year 1712-1717? 676: Organ Toccata & Fugue: Pianoforte Solo (Bach, Tausig), Toccata and Fugue in D minor (Stokowski transcription), Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565 (9:22), Bach: Toccata in D minor (A Hi-Fi Adventure), CD 2, No. Bach?" References consisting of a last name and date refer to an entry in the Sources section below: "Toccata and Fugue in D minor" redirects here. The section ends with a diminished seventh chord which resolved into the tonic, D minor, through a flourish. [76][77] In the mid-1920s, Marie Novello recorded the Tausig piano version of BWV 565 on 78 rpm discs. He feels that the crescendo that develops through arpeggios, gradually building up to the use of hundreds of pipes at the same time, can show exactly at what point the wind system of the organ might become inadequate. Thin 5. In the 20th century, an orchestral version of the piece, created by Leopold Stokowski, popularized the work further when it was included in Walt Disney’s film Fantasia, released in 1940. or Prelude and Fugue. Such defects show a carelessness deemed typical of Kellner, who left over 60 copies of works by Bach. [158] A version for solo horn was arranged by Zsolt Nagy[159] and has been performed by Frank Lloyd. To get the audience to feel, the musician should express feeling. Another piece listed as Bach's was also known as Toccata and Fugue in D minor, and was equally entitled to the "Dorian" qualification. Ringk’s copy abounds in Italian tempo markings, fermatas (a characteristic feature of Ringk’s copies) and staccato dots, all very unusual features for pre–1740 German music. 6 that the New Bach Edition prefers to stay close to authoritative early sources for their score presentations. [13][14] However, the numerous recitative stretches are rarely found in the works of northern composers and may have been inspired by Johann Heinrich Buttstett,[10] a pupil of Pachelbel, whose few surviving free works, particularly his Prelude and Capriccio in D minor, exhibit similar features. [34][88] In Reginald Lane Poole's 1882 biography, the work is again merely listed. Taylor begins his narrative with, "What you’re going to see is the designs and pictures and stories of what music inspired in the minds and imaginations of a group of artists." "Scoring Incredible Futures: Science-Fiction Screen Music, and "Postmodernism" as Romantic Epiphany". Towards the third time, the texture to me changed to a homophonic texture as there was one melody throughout the piece. [87], In 1873, Philipp Spitta devoted somewhat less than a page to the work in the first volume of his Bach biography. [145] Richard Douglas Jones takes no position with regard to the composition's authenticity. The attribution of the piece to Bach has been challenged since the 1980s by a number of scholars. As was common practice for German music of the 17th century, the intended registration is not specified, and performers’ choices vary from simple solutions such as organo pleno to exceedingly complex ones, such as Liszt’s preference for glockenspiel stop for Prestissimo triplets in the opening section, and the quintadena stop for repeated notes in bars 12–15. Although only simple triadic harmony is employed throughout the fugue, there is an unexpected C minor subject entry, and furthermore, a solo pedal statement of the subject—a unique feature for a Baroque fugue. Stokowski’s first 78rpm disc of 1927 was an international best-seller which introduced the music to many record collectors. In early Archiv Produktion releases, the list on the sleeve contained the organ compositions in the order they appeared on the recording without distinction,[57] in the 1960s BWV 565 became listed first;[58] but by the 1980s, the font size of BWV 565 was larger than that of the other compositions,[59] and in the 1990s Walcha's 1963 recording of the piece became the only piece by Bach included in DG's Classic Mania CD set with popular tunes by various classical composers. Although only simple triadic harmony is employed throughout the fugue, there is an unexpected C minor subject entry, and furthermore, a solo pedal statement of the subject—a unique feature for a Baroque fugue. A single dramatic ground-thought unites the daring passage work of the toccata, that seems to pile up like wave on wave; and in the fugue the intercalated passages in broken chords only serve to make the climax all the more powerful. Homophonic 3. Source(s): my infinite wisdom. Another theory, first put forward by Williams in 1981, suggests that BWV 565 may have been a transcription of a lost solo violin piece. It is most probably a later addition, similar to the title of Toccata, Adagio and Fugue, BWV 564, because in the Baroque era such organ pieces would most commonly be called simply Prelude (Praeludium, etc.) 157–171 in Stauffer/May 1986, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFZehnder2011 (. [36], In 1980, Peter Williams wrote about BWV 565 in the first volume of his The Organ Music of J.S.Bach. In his description of the piece, Grace refers to Pirro, elaborating Pirro's "storm" analogy, and like Pirro, he seems convinced Bach went touring with the piece. Parallel octaves and the preponderance of thirds and sixths may be explained by a transcriber's attempt to fill in harmony which, if preserved as is, would be inadequately thin on a pipe organ. However, more modern conventions were maintained with regard to using the treble clef in the upper stave and using a separate stave for the pedal. 3 Toccata et Fuga in d BWV 565 (pp. With the reprise of the initial Toccata, the dramatic idea reaches its culmination amidst flying scales and with an ending of great sonority. "Statistik der Concerte im Saale des Gewandhauses zu Leipzig", Stauffer, George B. [107] The score of Stokowski's arrangement was published in 1952. In the 20th century the work was generally viewed very differently, as a bold and dramatic piece. This popular work has been transcribed many times. [141][142] Several essays in John Butt's Cambridge Companion on Bach discuss the attribution problems of BWV 565. [22] Its period of origin has been assumed to have been as early as around 1704,[32] and as late as the 1750s. Morricone used the trumpet musical theme "La resa dei conti" ("Sixty Seconds to What?") Toccata and fugue in D minor is one of the most famous and reknown works of Johann Sebastian Bach. Little Fugue in G minor (form) Fugue. [10] It has been deemed too simplistic for it to have been written down by Bach,[10] and too much a stroke of genius to have been composed by anyone else but Bach. However, the designation of BWV 565 as a work of doubtful attribution is not supported by the renowned Bach scholar Christoph Wolff. Oskar Fischinger had previously used Bach's Third Brandenburg Concerto to accompany abstract animations and suggested to Stokowski that his orchestral version of BWV 565 could be used in the same way. Until proof of the contrary, BWV 565 should be considered as a work by Johann Sebastian Bach. Johann Sebastian Bach: His Work and Influence on the Music of Germany 1685–1750, Volume 1: Preludes, Toccatas, Fantasias, Fugues, Sonatas, Concertos and Miscellaneous Pieces (BWV 525–598, 802–805 etc.). It then spirals toward the bottom, where a diminished seventh chord appears (which actually implies a dominant chord with a minor 9th against a tonic pedal), built one note at a time. Seb. These near-identical 19th-century copies, the version Felix Mendelssohn knew, use the treble clef and a separate stave for the pedal. There is no Bach composition that has been used so often and for such diverse purposes in our day as the 'Toccata and fugue in D minor', BWV 565. In any case, for a classically trained musician such a glaring reference to one of the most hackneyed commonplaces of Western art music—certainly the most hackneyed within Bach's output (although its authorship has long been disputed)—clashes with the alleged intention of paying homage to the Eisenach maestro." Unusually, the answer is in the subdominant key, rather than the traditional dominant. No edition of the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis listed the Toccata and Fugue among the composer's doubtful works, nor does its entry on the website of the Bach Archiv Leipzig even mention alternative views on the attribution issue. Toccata and Fugue in D Minor- Bach Toccata and Fugue in D Minor, Analysis: This analysis will not be given as your typical analysis which is made to makes sense mathematically. Bach. For a simpler demonstration of counterpoint, listen to one of Bach’s two-part inventions and notice how the “left hand” imitates the “right hand.” Instead of a single melody with supporting accompaniment (homophonic music), the voices in a contrapuntal work are essentially equal and independent. [10] A new violin version was created by scholar Bruce Fox-Lefriche in 2004. In Ringk's manuscript the upper stave is written down using the soprano clef (as was common in the time when the manuscript originated), where printed editions use the treble clef. The subject of the four-voice fugue is made up entirely of sixteenth notes, with an implied pedal point set against a brief melodic subject that first falls, then rises. [52], The work was first recorded (in abridged form as "Toccata and Finale") by John J. McClellan on the Salt Lake Tabernacle organ in Salt Lake City in late August or early September 1910 by the Columbia Graphophone Company, who released it in the U.S. in 1911 on Columbia 10-inch disc A945 and in the U.K. on Columbia-Rena disc 1704,[53] which is one of the first commercial pipe organ recordings. Bach's Toccata and Fugue in D minor is one of the most famous pieces of Baroque organ music ever written - with a particularly iconic opening. As a broad generalisation, the organ has a fatter, fuller sound which contrasts with the more clearly defined sounds of the orchestra. [37] David Schulenberg feels that the attribution of BWV 565 to Bach is doubtful. [20] Similarly, the album sleeves of Marie-Claire Alain's recordings of BWV 565 in the 1960s, listed the piece in the same font as the other recorded works, but by the 1980s, it was in a larger font. "On Measuring Musical Style – The Case of Some Disputed Organ Fugues in the J. S. Bach (BWV) Catalogue".

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